National Posture Institute News Story: For the holiday weight-gain season: The chemistry behind calorie counts and nutrition labels
WASHINGTON, December 17, 2012 — With the holiday season a high-risk period for packing on unwanted pounds, the American Chemical Society (ACS) today posted a new video that may lend perspective on this year's battle of the bulge. Produced by the world's largest scientific society, it explains the science behind the calorie counts and other information on those Nutrition Facts Labels on food packages. Available at www.BytesizeScience.com, the video tells the story of how scientists first determined the calorie content of food in the 1800s, and how scientists determine fat, protein and carbohydrate levels in foods today.
The video explains that the calorie content of food was determined in the late 1800s by chemist Wilbur O. Atwater. Atwater built a four-by-eight-foot device called a respiration calorimeter, which was big enough to allow a person to step into it. It measured the amount of heat they released, the amount of oxygen they consumed and the carbon dioxide they gave off after eating a variety of foods.
Using this device, Atwater was able to measure the precise amount of energy contained in thousands of food items. He found that carbohydrates and proteins were worth 4 calories per gram and fats about 9 calories per gram, which is about 1/28th of an ounce. This 4-9-4 rule remains embodied in today's Nutrition Facts Labels.
The video, from the award-winning Digital Services Unit in the ACS Office of Public Affairs, is based on an article in the latest issue of ChemMatters, ACS' quarterly magazine for high school students.
ChemMatters has been connecting chemistry to our everyday lives for the past 28 years. Published quarterly by the ACS Office of High School Chemistry, each issue contains articles about the chemistry of everyday life and is of interest to high school students and their teachers.
For additional entertaining video podcasts from ACS, go to www.bytesizescience.com. The Bytesize Science series is produced by the ACS Office of Public Affairs.
The American Chemical Society is a nonprofit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress. With more than 164,000 members, ACS is the world's largest scientific society and a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences. Its main offices are in Washington, D.C., and Columbus, Ohio.
National Posture Institute News Story: 8 new tips on maintaining healthy resolutions 8 days into the new year
TORONTO, Jan. 7, 2013 – Now that the New Year is upon us, New Year’s resolutions to eat healthier may be top of mind, but how easy is it to keep your resolve after a few weeks? To keep from sliding back into old habits, Ryerson University experts offer these tips to help you keep on track:
Tips from Dr. Stephanie Cassin, Department of Psychology:
1. Remind yourself of your reasons for change
In order to maintain changes to your eating habits, the advantages of changing your eating habits should outweigh the advantages of staying the same. Make a list of top five reasons why you want to change your eating habits (e.g., improve your health, energy, weight, mood, confidence). Post this list in a visible spot (perhaps in the kitchen) and read it regularly to remind yourself of the reasons why you want to maintain these changes.
2. Reduce your vulnerability to overeating
Although you might feel tempted to go on a strict diet after the holidays, skipping meals and eating too little can actually increase your vulnerability to overeating because it leaves you feeling physically or psychologically deprived. It is important to eat meals and snacks at regularly scheduled times throughout the day, limit your consumption of alcohol (and any another other substances that increase impulsive eating), and practice good self-care habits (e.g., adequate sleep and exercise).
3. “The more the merrier” does not apply to junk food
Moderation is the key to maintaining lifestyle changes. Keeping your cupboards filled with junk food is not recommended, but neither is strict avoidance of “forbidden” foods. Instead of stocking up your kitchen with junk food and sneaking cookies out of the cupboard, buy healthier snacks at the supermarket and prepare them in advance so you have fresh fruits and veggies ready to eat. Try keeping pre-cut carrots, celery sticks or grape tomatoes in clear containers in the fridge so you can grab them first before reaching for something else that has more calories.
4. Find other pleasures in your life
If you want to give up bad eating habits for good, it is important to replace those habits with other enjoyable activities. Make a list of pleasurable activities, being sure to include some activities that are incompatible with overeating (e.g., taking a hot shower, giving yourself a manicure). Incorporate these activities into your daily routine, particularly when the urge to overeat is high. When that mid-afternoon craving for chocolate or chips strikes, grab an apple instead and go for a quick walk to take your mind off the urge for an unhealthy treat.
Tips from Dr. Nick Bellissimo, Department of Nutrition:
1. Slow and steady wins the race
Many of us tend to pack on a little weight during the holidays from overindulging in calorie-rich foods and treats. As a result, you may tempted to try to shed those unwanted pounds quickly through extreme dieting or taking up an exercise regimen that is not sustainable. While this approach may get you short-term results, the benefits are short-lived. Instead, take baby steps by incorporating small dietary and exercise changes into your routine.
2. Never eat while watching T.V.
Watching television actually encourages overeating by overriding the body’s internal calorie sensors. Even if you are following a healthy diet, mindless eating can increase your caloric intake by about 15 per cent. Avoid snacking or eating meals in front of the television if you want to eliminate those excess calories. Leave the television off and have a conversation at the table with family or friends instead. This will also slow down the pace of your meal, allowing your body the time to digest your food and feel satiated.
3. Embrace water, fibre and protein
Face it: there isn’t a magic bullet for appetite control. But simply drinking more water and making fibre and protein a staple in your health regime will help you feel full longer. Fibre-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables and water are potent appetite suppressants. Incorporating protein into your meals will also make you full longer by slowing down the rate at which food moves through the digestive system.
4. Eat only when you are hungry
People tend to munch on foods when they are not hungry, or ignore cues when their stomach starts to growl. Both actions can lead to overeating and offset your resolution to eat healthier. You also might be actually thirsty, not hungry. If you are in between meals and feel hungry, try drinking a glass of water and wait 10 to 15 minutes to see if you need to eat something. If your hunger pangs persist, snack on a food that keeps you full to control your appetite, such as an apple, carrots, trail mix, yoghurt or almonds. You should also make a habit of reading food labels to help you make informed choices on healthier snacks.
NPI News Story-Home Fall-Prevention Checklist: According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Administration on Aging (AoA), one in every eight Americans is now 65 or older. “This means that a sizeable segment of the population is at risk for falling,” says Jonathan Scheff, M.D., chief medical officer for Health Net, Inc. “For the elderly,” he adds, “falls often lead to a downward health spiral, so the key is taking steps to prevent falls in the first place. Older Americans are living longer than ever, and our goal at Health Net is to help them avoid debilitating injuries and enjoy their golden years.”
Home fall-prevention checklist
The National Safety Council notes that – during any given week – more than 30,000 Americans over the age of 65 are seriously injured by falling, and the majority of those falls occur at home. “These are largely preventable injuries,” explains Scheff, “so we’re urging seniors to follow the AoA’s recommendations for preventing falls at home.” These recommendations include:
- Install handrails on both sides of any stairways;
- Secure all throw rugs and area rugs with tacks, nonskid pads, or double-sided rug tape;
- Use non-skid floor wax;
- Remove soap buildup in tubs and showers;
- Place non-slip strips in tub and shower; secure bathmats with double-sided tape;
- Install adjustable-height showerheads;
- Mount grab bars on both sides of toilet, as well as on bath and shower walls;
- Keep items used frequently within easy reach to eliminate the need for a step stool;
- Plug nightlights in hallways, bedrooms, bathrooms and stairways;
- Install light switches at the top and bottom of stairs;
- Place a lamp and telephone near your bed;
- Remove any clutter from hallways and other high-traffic areas.
Wellness fall-prevention checklist
As Scheff points out, “In addition to making their homes as fall-proof as possible, older Americans also can take steps that will both improve wellness and reduce the risk of falling.” Toward this end, the CDC suggests that seniors:
- Exercise regularly, because lack of exercise leads to weakness, which in turn increases the chances of falling; exercises that improve balance – such as yoga and Tai chi – are especially beneficial;
- Review with your health-care provider the medications – both over-the-counter and prescription – that you’re currently taking to determine if any are causing significant drowsiness or disorientation, as these conditions increase the risk of falling;
- Have your vision checked regularly to detect conditions – such as glaucoma or cataracts – that could impair vision and possibly cause a fall; those who wear glasses also should have annual vision tests.
Scheff additionally suggests that seniors contact their health plan and ask if they offer fall-prevention assistance. “At Health Net,” he says, “our Medicare Advantage members can be referred to a health coach who will assess their risk of falling and then help them take steps designed to prevent falls.”
Abstract- No method currently exists to determine the location of the kick point during the golf swing. This study co...nsisted of two phases. In the first phase, the static kick point of 10 drivers (having identical grip and head but fitted with shafts of differing mass and stiffness) was determined by two methods; 1) a visual method used by professional club fitters and 2) an algorithm using 3D locations of markers positioned on the golf club. Using level of agreement statistics, we showed the latter technique was a valid method to determine the location of the static kick point.
In phase two, the validated method was used to determine the dynamic kick point during the golf swing. Twelve elite male golfers had three shots analysed for two drivers fitted with stiff shafts of differing mass (56 g and 78 g). Excellent between-trial reliability was found for dynamic kick point location. Differences were found for dynamic kick point location when compared to; static kick point location, as well as between-shaft and within-shaft. These findings have implications for future investigations examining the bending behavior of golf clubs, as well as being useful to examine relationships between properties of the shaft and launch parameters.
Source: J Appl Biomech. 2012 Dec 27. Joyce C, Burnett A, Matthews M.
School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Western Australia, Australia.
Happy New Year all NPI Fans! Have a great day and great year for all!
PITTSBURGH (AP) -- Armed with a promise from his beloved defensive coordinator that he wouldn't retire without first informing his players, Ryan Clark threatened to avoid Dick LeBeau.
"I didn't want to hear it, so I've told him, `If you try to leave, well, you didn't see me and tell me, so you can't,"' said Clark, the Steelers' free safety. "`That would make you not to be a man of your word, and I know you as such."'
Clark needn't worry. The 75-year-old LeBeau has every intention of returning in 2013 for what would be a 55th consecutive season in the NFL.
LeBeau opened his first meeting of the week with his defense by telling players he'll come back for a 10th season as Pittsburgh's defensive coordinator.
LeBeau, a Hall of Famer, publicly will only say his status is in the hands of head coach Mike Tomlin. But with the defense ranked No. 1 in the NFL for the second consecutive season and fifth time in nine years, there's little reason to think Tomlin would make a change.
"Let's just say I really like Pittsburgh and I really like working for the Steelers," LeBeau said after practice Thursday. "Coach Tomlin will tell you if he wants me back or not. It will be up to Mike."
Asked as a follow-up if he would come back if asked, LeBeau smiled and said, "I love Pittsburgh."
The city has come to love LeBeau, too, after he orchestrated a defense that has ranked in the top five of the league in 10 of his 11 seasons as defensive coordinator. LeBeau also held the job in 1995-96 under former head coach Bill Cowher.
Not even the famed Steel Curtain defenses of the 1970's - statistically, at least - can match what LeBeau's units have accomplished. Only two Steelers teams during their run of four Super Bowl titles in six years under Chuck Noll were No. 1 in total defense.
Since LeBeau returned for his second stint with the franchise in 2004, the Steelers have been to three Super Bowls - winning two - and have had the No. 1 defense five times.
"We know he's the best in the game," veteran linebacker Larry Foote said. "I think everybody else around the league knows it. A lot of times in the games it turns into a chess match, and he wins his share."
Known as the architect of the so-called "zone blitz," LeBeau's teams have been known for the confusion they cause and for their pressure on opposing quarterbacks. His record against rookie starting quarterbacks over the past nine years is 14-2.
His resume after more than a half-century in the league earns the respect of players - but it's his calm and fatherly demeanor that endears those who play for LeBeau to him.
They openly campaigned for LeBeau to get into the Hall of Fame for his 14-year career with the Detroit Lions that included 62 interceptions. LeBeau wept when, on New Year's Day 2006, his players en masse showed up for a game against Detroit wearing his throwback No. 44 Lions jersey.
"One of the joys of coming to work as a Pittsburgh Steeler free safety is getting to see Coach Lebeau every year," Clark said.
LeBeau, who was head coach of the Cincinnati Bengals from 2000-02, doesn't look like a man who will be 76 when next season opens.
"He's like a grandfather - but I don't want to say grandfather because he doesn't really act like a typical grandfather," Foote said. "He's a man of a lot of jokes and wisdom and he encourages everybody.
"He can get around, especially when all his buddies come in. He's always screaming, always running around, doing push-ups."
Keenly aware of where his defense ranks, LeBeau could have gone out with a team that has a chance of finishing the season No. 1 in the NFL in total defense, passing defense and rushing defense. Heading into the season finale Sunday against Cleveland (5-10), the Steelers are No. 2 in rushing defense and No. 1 in the other two categories.
But those stout numbers haven't translated into enough victories this season, with Pittsburgh (7-8) set to miss the playoffs for only the third time in LeBeau's 14 seasons on the staff. He was Cowher's defensive backfield coach from 1992-94.
Despite the gaudy overall rankings this season, LeBeau's Steelers weren't the "closers" they were in the past. Four times, Pittsburgh blew a fourth-quarter lead. The Steelers also uncharacteristically finished in the bottom half of the NFL in sacks and turnovers forced.
"The truth of the matter is we didn't get off to a really good start on defense this year," LeBeau said. "I don't think it was ever quite as bad as it was perceived to be, but we weren't playing the way we wanted to play. For, I'd say over a month and a half now, our third down numbers have been good. We got a little behind early in all phases, but these guys stayed together and played pretty doggone good defense and got us back to where we like to be, up near the top of the bunch."
As usual, LeBeau credits the players for the defense's success. That's just one reason why they share such adulation for him.
"He sets the tone," Foote said. "He's the reason. He always brings us guys together. He puts us in the right situation to make plays."
Read More: http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/nfl/news/20121227/dick-lebeau-pittsburgh-steelers.ap/#ixzz2GLfWa2u2
The Orthopeadic Surgery Department, Wakayama Medical University, 811-1 Kimiidera, Wakayama, 641-0012, Japan.
NPI Wishes everyone a Happy Holiday today!!!
National Posture Institute News Story-Healthy lifestyle during menopause may decrease breast cancer risk later on.
Combination of diet and exercise may be as beneficial as drugs
Obese, postmenopausal women are at greater risk for developing breast cancer and their cancers tend to be more aggressive than those in lean counterparts. A University of Colorado Cancer Center study published in the December issue of the journal Cancer Research shows how this risk might be prevented.
"By using nutrient tracers for fat and sugar, we tracked where the body stored excess calories. In lean models, excess fat and glucose were taken up by the liver, mammary and skeletal tissues. In obese models, excess fat and glucose were taken up by tumors, fueling their growth," says Erin Giles, PhD, postdoctoral researcher at the CU Cancer Center and the paper's lead author.
In short, if you are lean, excess calories go to healthy tissue. If you are obese, excess calories feed the tumor.
"This implies that the menopausal window may be an opportunity for women to control their breast cancer risk through weight management," Giles says.
In this study, Giles worked with a team of scientists including postdoctoral fellows Elizabeth Wellberg and Sonali Jindal, as well as faculty members Steve Anderson, Pepper Schedin, Ann Thor and Paul Maclean. Their study also showed that tumors from obese animals had increased levels of the progesterone receptor, and this receptor appears to give tumors a metabolic advantage for growth. To extend their findings to humans, they recruited gene analysis experts David Astling and Aik-Choon Tan who analyzed 585 human breast cancers and found that human tumors expressing the progesterone receptor had the same metabolic advantage.
"Basically, we saw an abnormal metabolic response to fat and sugar in the obese that, in many ways, mirrors the response to fat and sugar in Type II diabetes," Giles says. Noticing this similarity, the group tested the use of the common Type II diabetes drug, Metformin, in their model of postmenopausal breast cancer.
"With treatment, tumor size was dramatically decreased in the obese, and tumors showed reduced expression of the progesterone receptor," Giles says.
Using a pre-clinical model, the investigators found that weight gain during menopause is particularly bad for those who are obese when entering menopause. Together, the results of this study suggest that the combination of obesity and weight gain during menopause can impact breast cancer in two ways. First, tumors that arise in obese women appear to have a metabolic advantage, and second, the inability to store excess calories in healthy tissues may further fuel tumor growth.
"While drugs may be useful in controlling breast cancer risk in obese, postmenopausal women, our results imply that a combination of diet and exercise may be equally if not more beneficial," Giles says.
The group's ongoing studies are testing whether interventions such as diet and exercise, during the period of menopausal weight gain, can improve tumor outcomes.