Leadership and management are often used interchangeably, however there is a distinct difference between the two. Throughout the history of I-O psychology and the scientific study of leadership, a leader has been in the position of power and has been thought to have distinct behavioral traits (Koppes, L., 2007). Some of the classic behavioral traits are that a leader behaves accordingly, leads with optimal performance, and is effective at accomplishing tasks (Koppes, L., 2007). A leader is the how and a manager is the what. Traditional approaches to leadership are: The Trait Approach, The Power Approach, The Behavioral Approach, The Contingency Approach, and The Consequences of Participation: The Vroon-Yettom Model. New approaches to leadership are Leader-Member Exchange (LMX), Transformational Leadership, Authentic Leadership, and the most recent is Charismatic Leadership (Hollander & Offermann, 1990). All types of leaderships have their place in Organizational Behavior, however the same style of leadership does not work in every industry. This said, in the health and fitness industry, the most successful traditional leadership style is the Behavioral Approach and the most influential modern style is Authentic Leadership. This is proven in the success of one of the oldest health and fitness organizations, the YMCA, which has been in business since 1844 (Zald & Denton, 1963).
Leadership is important in Organizational Behavior. Healthy leadership can influence the connections with individuals with in the organization; gain group structure, which in return impacts the success of the organization. Leadership does not have a universal definition (Koppes, L., 2007). After researching the history of leadership, the above statement is clearly understood. The foundation of leadership began with the Great Man Theory, which was documented by the historian named Thomas Carlyle (Koppes, L., 2007). It was believed that a leader was born to be a leader as opposed to being made a leader (Koppes, L., 2007). As we moved into the 20th Century, a list was compiled of over 100 successful leaders who shared their strengths as a leader (Koppes, L., 2007). By the 21st Century, I-O psychologist have evolved to believe that a leader has leadership traits however it is the social relationships that make a leader successful at his or her position.
As previously mentioned, there are many approaches to traditional leadership i.e. The Trait Approach, The Power Approach, The Behavioral Approach, The Contingency Approach, and The Consequences of Participation: The Vroon-Yettom Model. However, the most appropriate traditional approach to leadership that is directly correlated to Organizational Behavior is the Behavioral Approach.
The Behavioral Approach began by researchers at Ohio State University. The research focused on the kinds of behavior displayed by people in leadership roles. The outcome identified two major types: consideration, which is interpersonal orientation and initiating structure, which is task orientation (Landy & Conte, 2009). The approach proceeds to identify that a leader is task-oriented, relations-oriented, and has participative behavior. In today’s competitive society, a leader’s behavior plays an important role in leading a team (Hobson, Strupeck, & Szostek, 2010). Accountability and observable results are valued by team members and influence trust in leadership (Hobson, Strupeck, & Szostek, 2010). To add, the validity of the Behavioral Approach was documented by conducting different types of questionnaires (Koppes, L., 2007).
There are also many modern approaches to leadership i.e. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX), Transformational Leadership, Authentic Leadership, and the most recent is Charismatic Leadership (Hollander & Offermann, 1990). All of the mentioned approaches are relevant to Organizational Behavior, however the Authentic Leadership approach is one that stands out the most in the 21st Century.
In a world of the survival of the fittest, unethical behavior has become rampant, which is unfortunate. On the contrary, Authentic Leadership has come to the forefront because society is demanding honesty and genuineness. Authentic Leadership or ethical leadership behavior results in employees that are trusting and committed. An authentic leader is a moral example for the organization and its employees (Hsieh & Wang, 2013). Authentic Leadership creates psychological empowerment, which results in employees that have trust in the organization and leadership (Avolio, May, & Weichun, 2004). Supervisors that are consistent with their words and actions are perceived to have moral values therefore are more trusted by employees (Hsieh & Wang, 2013).
In closing, though there are many different styles and traits in leaders, numerous studies and research have found that there is not common denominator, which is why is has been difficult to find a universal definition of leadership (Koppes, L., 2007). Both theories, The Behavioral Approach (traditional) and Authentic Leadership (modern) are similar, as they value trust, morals, and respect to be important in leadership. There are many stereotypes of leaders, however employee perception which result from leadership behaviors, influence performance (Koppes, L., 2007).
This said, reflecting back to the history of health and fitness, we have come full circle with the YMCA organization. The four core values of the YMCA are: caring, honesty, respect, and responsibility (Zald & Denton, 1963). These values are consistent in the Behavioral Approach and Authentic Leadership. A leader of the YMCA is physically involved in the programs and less likely to be passive or be involved with local professionals (Zald & Denton, 1963). The leaders of the YMCA focus on creating a healthy and happy environment for the community, which includes members and the employees. Before the 19th Century, the YMCA served only men (Zald & Denton, 1963). This is a component of the Behavioral Approach. As the organization moved into the 20th Century and 21st Century, it opened its membership to include men and women, of all religions, and all ages (Zald & Denton, 1963).
A leader of the YMCA must be action oriented, have understanding of local needs, and serve as an educator. Behavioral Approach and Authentic Leadership are task oriented, moral and value driven, which are the foundation of the YMCA organization. Honesty and genuineness are major components of Authentic Leadership (Avolio, May, & Weichun, 2004). In the 21st Century, Authentic Leadership holds great value in the field of health and fitness. Authentic Leadership or ethical leadership behavior results in employees that are trusting and committed. An authentic leader is a moral example for the organization and its employees (Avolio, May, & Weichun, 2004). Employees perceive the moral values of an authentic leader as the guiding force behind the success of the organization. Authentic Leadership creates psychological empowerment, which results in employees that have trust in the organization and leadership (Avolio, May, & Weichun, 2004). As the YMCA has evolved, the organization has practiced Organizational Behavior dating back to the traditional approach e.g. Behavioral Approach, and in the 21st Century, practicing the modern approach of Authentic Leadership. Both approaches have been appropriate for the time in history.
Avolio, Bruce J., May, Douglas R., Weichun Zhu (2004). The Impact of Ethical Leadership Behavior on Employee Outcomes: The Roles of Psychological Empowerment and Authenticity. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies (Baker College). 11(1), p16-26.
Hirsch, G. (2008, September 22). YMCA chief laughs all the way to the corner office. Inside Tucson Business, 18(16), p24.
Hobson, C., Strupeck, D., Szostek, J (2010). A Behavioral Roles Approach to Assessing and Improving the Team Leadership Capabilities of Managers. International Journal of Management. 27(1), p3-15.
Hollander, E. & Offermann, L. (1990). Power and leadership in organizations: Relationships in transition. American Psychologist, 45(2), p179-189.
Koppes, L. (Ed) (2007). Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Landy, F. J., & Conte, J. M. (2009). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 1-4051-9025-6
Wang, D. & Hsieh, C. (2013). THE EFFECT OF AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP ON EMPLOYEE TRUST AND EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal 2013, Vol.
Zald, M. & Denton, P. (1963). Non-profit community-based organizations: The transformation of the YMCA. From Evangelism to general service: The transformation of the YMCA. Administrative Science Quarterly, 8(2), 214-34.
Do you find yourself putting together a list of health and fitness resolutions? Are you reading Yahoo’s cover page stories on how to lose weight and look younger? Let’s not forget those “how to” lose fat exactly where you want to, “celebrity trainer” tips, and “cleansing” diets for the New Year.
Now I’m going to throw in my two cents. Here’s a secret…there is no secret, trick, celebrity or no celebrity in Optimal Health. It’s that simple!
The health and fitness industry generated over 75 billion dollars in 2013. Fad or no fad, if it works or doesn’t work, people are paying for health and fitness!
Here’s my TRUTH about successful weight loss. You’re probably not going to like it, because what I am about to share with you requires accountability, commitment, dedication, and baby steps. What a concept.
- Over 1/3 of US Adults are obese.
- If losing weight were so easy, 69.2% of our nation would not have a weight problem. With a lunge or squat, a run, or a dance class everyone would achieve results, but that’s not the case.
- Weight loss begins in the kitchen, not at the gym.
- You do not need to pay to lose weight, there are tons of free websites and applications that can help you lose weight.
(Great recipes, food tracking, and exercise tracking tools)
(Great tips for the entire family and food tracking tools)
(iTunes – This application gives you a calculation of the price per unit size, calories per serving size, and values for your buck.)
(iTunes & Google Play – You can scan barcodes and get nutritional grades – with notes on contributing factors such as sugar and fat levels.)
(Google Play – Keeps track of your grocery list.)
(iTunes – Created by the Center for Food Safety to empower consumers with product authenticity information.)
- There is such a thing as not eating enough. When your body is malnourished, it stores fat as a source of emergency fuel. The less you eat, the more fat your body will store. This said, let’s not go to the other extreme, which is eating a lot of food 24/7. It’s all about a healthy balance.
- One size does not fit all. Just because the “blah blah diet” worked for your friend that doesn’t mean it is a healthy choice.
- Quick weight loss results usually means quick weight gain.
- Take at least 10,000 steps a day. It doesn’t have to be consecutive. It can be throughout the day. Two tools that can measure your steps are pedometers or a Fitbit.
- ADULTS NEED TO STRENGTH TRAIN. This one frustrates me the most. Somewhere in time someone said that you only need to do cardiovascular exercises to lose weight. Who is this person that is destroying people’s lives? You need EVERYTHING for optimal health. As we age, our muscles atrophy. Without strength training muscles will continue to atrophy. It is not because you are getting older and weaker, it is because you are getting older and not strength training. Adults are recommended to strength train at least two days per week.
- Last but not least, use your body mindfully. It really is that simple. Practicing "mindfulness" in the kitchen 80% of the time and physical activity (this includes cardiovascular, strength training, and stretching) at least 3 days a week and YOU WILL MEASURE RESULTS!
Happy New Year!
“Good health is not something we can buy. However, it can be an extremely valuable savings account.” ~Anne Wilson Shaef
I have chosen to evaluate the job of a Health Educator. Health Educators have many titles: “Certified Diabetes Educator, Child Development Specialist, Clinical Instructor, Clinical Nurse Educator, Community Health Consultant, Community Health Education Coordinator, Education Coordinator, Health Educator, Health Promotion Specialist, Public Health Educator (O*NET OnLine, 2013).” The link on O*NET OnLine for a Health Educator is http://www.onetonline.org/link/summary/21-1091.00 and the code is 21-109.00-Health Educators.
The role of a Health Educator is to disseminate health and wellness information. A health educator can work in the school system, hospitals, community organizations, government, or corporations that promote health and wellness to employees.
A Health Educator:
- “Provide and manage health education programs that help individuals, families, and their communities maximize and maintain healthy lifestyles.
- Collect and analyze data to identify community needs prior to planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating programs designed to encourage healthy lifestyles, policies, and environments.
- May serve as a resource to assist individuals, other healthcare workers, or the community, and may administer fiscal resources for health education programs (O*NET OnLine, 2013).”
A Health Educator is expected to have knowledge in education and training, English language (Bilingual is beneficial in minority communities), customer and personal service, communication and media, clerical, psychology, therapy and counseling, administration and management, and sociology and anthropology (O*NET OnLine, 2013). Health Educators should also be skillful in speaking, active listening, critical thinking, writing, reading comprehension, learning strategies, active learning, coordination, social perceptiveness, and time management (O*NET OnLine, 2013). The work value of a health educator places importance on relationships, independence, and achievements (O*NET OnLine, 2013). All of the mentioned are organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), which is “behavior that goes beyond what is expected (Landy, F. J., & Conte, J. M., 2009).” Health Educators must be motivated to promote health and wellness without judgment and prejudice. Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) would destroy any health promotion program, as it “threatens the well-being of the organization, its members, or both (Landy, F. J., & Conte, J. M., 2009).”
Pre-school children benefit from Health Educators because children learn and adopt “values through identification and imitation (Džibrić, D., Biberović, A., Huremović, T., Bilalić, J., June 2011). Health Educators that teach children have a powerful tool that can lead children down the road of health and wellness (Džibrić, D., Biberović, A., Huremović, T., Bilalić, J., June 2011). It is agreed by experts that, “healthy young people who attend school tend to learn better and a good education influences the development of a healthier population (McCuaig, L., Coore, S., Hay, P. J., 2012).” This sentence should not be taken lightly. Health literacy is essential to prevent negative health outcomes for our children (McCuaig, L., Coore, S., Hay, P. J., 2012). It is proven that people with low health literacy have more hospital visits, more chronic illnesses, poor self-management, and lack of adherence to prescription medications (McCuaig, L., Coore, S., Hay, P. J., 2012). A Health Educators must have the ability to be orally expressive, speech clarity, oral comprehension, written comprehension, written expression, inductive reasoning, problem sensitivity, deductive reasoning, near vision, and speech recognition (O*NET OnLine, 2013). A health educator must have traits that value “truthfulness, honesty, humility, integrity, determination, thoughtfulness, versatility, interest, and nobleness procedures (Džibrić, D., Biberović, A., Huremović, T., Bilalić, J., June 2011).”
Most often, Health Educators are required to be certified. In the job analysis provided on O*NET OnLine, they do not mention the percentage of Health Educators that hold Associate’s degrees, Bachelor’s degrees, or Master’s degrees, nonetheless certifications (O*NET OnLine, 2013). It is beneficial for Health Educators to become Certified Health Education Specialists (CHES), a credentialing provided by National Commission on Health Education Credentialing, Inc (NCHEC) (McKenzie, J., Seabert, D., 2009). Health Educators that have the required amount of education can take the CHES exam to show that they meet the competency requirements to be a Health Educator, which in return improves the chance of getting a job (McKenzie, J., Seabert, D., 2009). The CHES certification is for entry-level Health Educators, however 63% of exam takers have a master’s degree (McKenzie, J., Seabert, D., 2009). Many Health Educator positions require a CHES certification. The CHES exam was the first for Health Educators, starting in 1989, and in 2008, another certification came to the forefront. The certification is called Certified in Public Health (CPH), an accreditation by the Council on Education of Public Health (CEPH) (McKenzie, J., Seabert, D., 2009). Health Educators that are schooled in public health who hold a master’s or doctorate degree can take the CPH exam (McKenzie, J., Seabert, D., 2009). I think this information should have been included in the job analysis provided by O*NET OnLine.
Health Educators have distinct characteristics, either working with children or adults; a Health Educator must have a nonjudgmental openness to them. Personality-Based job analysis, such as the Personality-Related Positions Requirements Forms (PPRF) would be beneficial to identify the right personality for Health Educators (Landy, F. J., & Conte, J. M., 2009). The same is true of competency modeling, as Health Educators have the same core characteristics. The core characteristics do not differ while working in the school system, hospitals, community organizations, government, or corporations that promote health and wellness to employees. At the end of the day, a Health Educator must have integrity, cooperation, dependability, initiative, concern for others, independence, attention to detail, leadership, achievement/effort, and social orientation (O*NET OnLine, 2013). The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978) “require that a demonstration of validity include some connection between the job tasks or responsibilities and the test used to select people for that job (Landy, F. J., & Conte, J. M., 2009).” Ethically and legally, everyone has the opportunity to apply for any job, however if the applicant has difficulty in verbal communication, initiative, leadership, or is judgmental, to mention a few, the job of a Health Educator is not the best fit.
In closing, I knew that Health Educators are growing in numbers, however I was pleasantly surprised to learn the growth rate is higher than average. The projected growth between 2010 and 2020 is 29% or higher (O*NET OnLine, 2013). I believe with ObamaCare, Health Educators will flourish. A Health Educator’s main goal is to disseminate health and wellness to Americans, young or old. This job is invaluable to disease prevention and health promotion.
Džibrić, Dževad; Biberović, Alija; Huremović, Tarik; Bilalić (June 2011). The Role of Physical Education Pedagogues Working With Pre-Scoolers. ULOGA PEDAGOGA TJELESNOG I ZDRAVSTVENOG ODGOJA U RADU SA PREDŠKOLSKIM UZRASTOM. Jasmin, Sport Scientific & Practical Aspects. Jun2011, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p55
Landy, F. J., & Conte, J. M. (2009). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (3rd ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN: 1-4051-9025-6 Chapter 4: Job Analysis and Performance
McCuaig, L.; Coore, S.; Hay, P. J., (2012). Reducing dissonance along health-education fault lines: health literacy advocacy and the case for efficacious assessment. Asia-Pacific Journal of Health, Sport & Physical Education 2012, Vol. 3 Issue 1, p3
McKenzie, James F.; Seabert, Denise M., (2009) Why do Health Educators Obtain and Continue to Hold the CHES Credential? American Journal of Health Studies 2009, Vol. 24 Issue 4, p401
I am so excited to share my experience as a volunteer for Bikes 4 Orphans 1st Annual Fundraiser.
How it all began:
One of my clients was sharing a story about her son’s high school classmate named Sebouh Bazikian. She said that last year Sebouh had raised money from family and friends to buy bikes for an orphanage in Kenya. Sebouh kept his commitment to raise money and also followed through by delivering the bikes to Machao Orphanage. The experience was so rewarding that Sebouh decided to continue raising money for the less privileged children around the world.
After hearing this story, my immediate response was, “what can I do to help?” My two favorite topics are physical activity and children. I’m in! My experience in the past has been when the word “activity” and “fundraiser” are put in the same sentence; things are often not well received. I have found that people prefer things that are tangible or edible. After all, Girl Scout cookies generate millions of dollar each year. Don’t get me wrong, I LOVE my Girl Scout Cookies and what the organization promotes, but as a health educator, it is difficult for me to support something unhealthy.
What I loved about Bikes 4 Orphans is that the donation was a flat fee, $25, without sponsorship, and there was an “activity” involved, biking or hiking. I’m in!
After Sebouh learned that I wanted to volunteer, he contacted me and asked if I can lead a group warm-up and the hike. My reply, “happily”!
I had the great pleasure of meeting Sebouh in person two week prior to the event, with his wonderful parents at his side. Sebouh had his clipboard in hand, ready to take charge. At this time, I learned that as is true of any good leader, Sabouh had gathered a “team” to help with the event; two other teens by the name of Alex Chraghchian and Sean Bird. Brilliant!
I was incredibly impressed with Sabouh’s organization, and most of all, his passion toward this cause. I agree with an article written in the Glendale News-Press, these teens took a passion and put it toward a good cause.
Saturday, October 26, 2013:
The teens were on it! They appeared completely calm and ready to go. They got on stage and spoke well. Side note: When I was told that I have to do the warm-up on stage, I panicked.
The teens hoped for 80 participants, instead they had over 150. One of the teens told his Mom that he would be happy if they raise $1000, they raised almost $6,000.
They even had the high school band play, which was AWESOME. It was fantastic to bike/hike to your own band.
Through social medial, the teens had also gotten the attention of Channel 7 News.
Lastly, I must mention the NOT so JESIKAfit approved Meat and Potato food truck was present to feed the hungry teens. It is obvious that I had no involvement in the food choice :(
Working with a non-profit organization, I am often asked to donate or volunteer for different fundraisers. Though I would like to be everywhere and donate much, realistically I cannot. I do not volunteer unless I know I can give 100% of myself. I do not donate, unless I truly support the cause. This is a decision I made a year ago, when I held a fundraiser and experienced volunteers back out the last minute. Not fun :(
The fact that these teens trusted me, a total stranger, was courageous. The fact that these teens had such realistic expectations and were genuinely surprised at the outcome, is a result of great parenting.
In the end, I remember the words of my biology professor at Glendale Community College, Joe Beeman. Anyone remember him? His class was mandatory for all nursing and science major students. He once said, there is NO way he was going to pass a “D” student with a “C”. His reasoning was because when he enters the emergency room at the hospital while having a heart attack to see the face of the “D” student treating him, he will for sure have another heart attack because he let the "D" student pass : )
The moral of the story, one day when I see these teens all grown-up, I will trust that they will do the “right thing” because they have already entered down the path of "giving and sharing"! I commend these teens but most of all, I commend the PARENTS for "Leading By Example". Job well done and THANK YOU for including me!
My Dad Was The Luckiest Man On Earth
My Father was called by many names: Sarkis, Papa, Sako, Sako Amo, Sam, Sammy, Uncle Sam, Grandpa Sako, Saki w/ the Salami gun, Sakoolee, which means “Little Sako”.
You see, when Dad graduated from High School, he graduated at the top of his class. In Iran in the 1950’s, you were either wealthy or an exceptional student to have the opportunity to go to University; Dad was the latter. He was ready to go off to study medicine and unfortunately, when he was about to go to college his father fell ill. At this time, Dad dropped out of school and went to work for the Oil Company, “Shereekat-e-Naft”, to support his mother and little brother. One would say, well that’s not Lucky…that’s so unfortunate. Wait...the story continues.
Dad was such a hard worker in the oil company, that they sent him to school to become an accountant. He proudly supported his mother and little brother there after. He got transferred from Abadan to Tehran where he rented a room from Mucio Makar and Marta jan (my grandparents)…it is then, when he met a 16-year-old girl named Hilda (Mom). According to Mom, she and her girl friend used to make fun of Dad because he wore white socks and sandals…and oh ya, because he was super short. With persistence and love that was larger than his 5’3” height, he married the one and only love of his life. According to Dad, he was the Luckiest Man on Earth.
What also happened to Dad while he was at the Oil Company was that he was one of the first people in Iran to win the Lottery. At that time, someone would go around the office checking people’s tickets for the winning numbers. When Dad found out that he won the lottery, everyone said, “Sako, why aren’t you going home to your wife, you are a rich man now.” Dad’s response was, “I’m not done with my work yet.” That’s just the kind of man Dad was.
In 1976 when Dad made the decision to immigrate to the US, his #1 focus was to provide a better opportunity for his wife and young family. Many Iranians would send their children to boarding school for better education, however, Dad did not believe in that…he said to Mom, “Either we all go, or no one goes.” Being that he was The Luckiest Man On Earth, soon after Mom and Dad immigrated to the US, the Iranian Revolution took place. At this time, my Dad became a proud American. Until the very end, my Dad felt blessed to have a home in the US. In fact, Dad knew more about current affairs and American politics than I do.
Dad had to reinvent himself when he came to America. His first business was Hily’s Gift Shop…the reason he opened this shop was because Mom LOVED crystal, hence the name. Dad carried some of the finest crystal in town. Dad would hand make the boxes for the crystals. He would also hand make the bows for gift-wrapping. There really wasn't much that Dad couldn’t make. And oh ya, most of the inventory ended up at Mom & Dad’s house…but you knew that was coming…Mom LOVED crystal.
Dad’s next venture was a Mom & Pop deli called HyMart Deli in No Ho. I would like to call these years The Best Years Of Our Lives. We met some amazing people, and this is when our family became a solid unit. We worked together for 20 years, and every person in our family had their role. My Dad taught me basic booking, which was the best education I could have had at the age of 14. To me, Dad was the “Original Emeril”. He was so dynamic and that is why everyone fell in love with him.
Last October, Mom and Dad celebrated their 50th Wedding Anniversary. Dad was completely blotto…I have seen my Dad SUPER drunk four times. 1) When Ernie graduated from SC. 2) When I got married 3) When I achieved my masters. 4) At Mom & Dad’s 50th…and the 5th was going to be when I achieve my doctorate…he had promised.
To me, Mom and Dad is one word. They are/were a united front. They supported each other through everything. Mom takes care of the cooking, Dad took care of the house. Mom does the wash, Dad ironed. Dad washed the dishes, Mom put everything way. Mom spends money, Dad paid the bills. They even matched their outfits when they went out. Together they went through some incredibly difficult times, but their love for each other and their children always prevailed. The greatest dilemma for me now is…how can I ever give Mom the LOVE and the support that Dad gave to her?
Mentally, I always new Dad was on a lease. When Mom married Dad, Dad soon became Asthmatic and became Prednisone dependent. For those who know the drug, it is a miracle drug. It’s an anti-inflammatory, however, the side effects are many…all of which my Dad had. The drug also gives you a false sense of strength, as it’s a steroid, hence why Dad seemed superhuman. Every time Dad went to the doctor or the hospital, they were amazed that Dad was still alive. I counted 15 surgeries since 1995…every two years there was a fire drill…but Dad always fought for life…which to him was MOM, my brother & me.
I was just 7 years old, when I saw my Dad gasping for air due to an asthma attack…and at 14; I began preparing myself for this day. The commitment and discipline my Dad had in health and nutrition, kept him alive way beyond what was expected. As mentioned before, medical doctors were always amazed at his fight for life. I am SO THANKFUL for his strength and dedication to our family.
So what took my Dad’s life on September 5th, 2013? As a health science major I can explain it very easily. The heart needs the lungs and the lungs need the heart. The body needs hydration, in order to move oxygenated blood throughout the body. With unhealthy lungs, dehydration, 106-degree temperature, 11 medications a day, and an acute pulmonary embolism, it was Dad’s time to become an angel.
My Dad was the kind of man that was quiet, humble, never wanted to prove anything, content with the simplest things in life; Dad had a heart larger than himself. Dad’s smile and gentlemanly manner touched all hearts.
I can go on and on about the little guy but I will leave you with my favorite top 20ish memories of my Dad
1) Dad LOVED Mom.
2) Dad LOVED his Vodka Coke & a twist of lime.
3) Dad greeted me everyday during my lunch break. He would run to my car to help me with my bags. He made me lunch everyday & picked a flower from the garden and placed it on the table in a small vase.
4) When Mom married Dad, she did not know how to put on make-up. Dad would put on her eyeliner.
5) Dad HATED Mexican restaurants because they only carry American and Mexican Beer. They do not carry German beer.
6) Dad LOVED creating things. He was MacGyver. If it can be built, he would build it. If he couldn’t figure it out, he would study by either attending school or buy books,
7) Dad was a contractor at heart.
8) My Dad used a Kitchen Aid Mixer to stir concrete.
9) Dad LOVED Vegas. He hit $10,000 back in the 90’s. The little guy showed up at the hotel room w/ a champagne bottle the size of him, with several lei’s around his neck. But of course, Dad was the Luckiest man on Earth.
10) Dad LOVED to Dance…He loved Latin Music, more specifically, Perez Prado.
11) Dad LOVED to laugh and entertain…he had an open door policy.
12) At his worst, Dad LOVED life.
13) Dad LOVED Home Depot. We would always say Dad went to the “Church of Home Depot”.
14) Dad’s favorite topics were space, geography, politics, and anything you can build.
15) Dad LOVED spicy food.
16) Most of the Homeless in North Hollywood knew my Dad. Why? He fed them for free.
17) Dad had incredible discipline in everything. He always created projects for himself. Boredom and being lazy was never an option.
18) Dad hated black, no make-up, long dresses, and long hair.
19) Dad NEVER complained about life. There wasn’t a challenge in life that he could not concur…he was always positive and optimistic.
20) Dad did not have an egotistical bone in his body. Whatever he did in life was because he wanted to please everyone BUT himself. Dad was perfectly content with being in the background and letting those around him SHINE…especially Mom.
21) Dad LOVED to work on the house, to a fault…even to the very last minute.
22) Dad had a great sense of humor, in fact, right before he passed away, he cracked a joke with Mom, which left her laughing out loud…5 minutes later he became an angel.
23) Dad was the happiest when he was with MOM, my brother and me…and of course all those who he came into his life.
24) When it comes to Dad’s grace, kindness, class, gentle soul and heart, my Brother holds all those traits. He also, has the ability to start projects and never finish them : ) And as for me, I’m good for a laugh, positive spirit, optimistic, love to dance, entertain, and exercise. My church of choice is not Home Depot, but it is OH-Wellness.
Dear friends, my Dad left behind some valuable messages.
1) Realize that nothing in life is too challenging or too difficult.
2) Love is not only verbal…it is in your actions.
3) And LOVE those who are around you because when you depart, you want to depart with smiling memories.
I would like to end by saying “Dad Was NOT the Luckiest Man on Earth”. We are the Luckiest people on Earth to have known him. Whether it was a short period of time you knew Dad, or a lifetime, Dad had a way of touching all hearts.
Oh my goodness, it is September already, which means it is time for my monthly post. How time flies!
This month my topic is my “new adventure”. As many of you know, I have been an eternal student and I am at my happiest when I am in school. After a three-year hiatus, I recently re-applied for my PhD program at the Universities of the Rockies in Colorado Springs, Colorado. If you recall, when I first began this journey, my focus was Health and Wellness Psycology. Three years ago, I was having a difficult time focusing on my studies. I was developing OH-Wellness, OH-Fitness, OH-Athlete, and achieving my Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES) certification through the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, INC. In retrospect, I must admit, I was quite overwhelmed.
I’ll return to the topic of school shortly.
Three years later, it is all coming together. First, I have had to cut down on my work hours so I can be a student again. I teach Monday – Thursday and focus on my studies Friday – Sunday. This has been made possible by finding a great instructor, Ashley Orlando, to take over my Friday and Saturday classes. She is such a wonderful addition to OH-Wellness, with her grace, amazing smile, and incredibly encouraging attitude. What’s even more wonderful is that she has enhanced our program with her professional dance history and Pilates teaching. If you haven’t met Ashley yet, please feel free to try a class. You’ll love her. (By the way, you’ll find me in her class also. And yes, you can laugh at me because my hips just don’t want to travel to the left :). Also, in the New Year, Narbeh Ebrahimian will have graduated with his kinesiology degree with a focus on “Fitness”. He will expand our teen programs.
Back to school…when I finally had the courage to apply for school again, it was almost like this was my time. I called my admissions counselor and said, “Hi, remember me?” She proceeded to ask me what I had been up to for the past three years. I told her about OH and CHES and that I am contemplating changing my focus from Health and Wellness Psychology to Sport and Performance Psychology. She asked me why I was contemplating this change. I answered that I have had significant success with my teen programs and that I would like to help them achieve university success. She then hit me with a bomb. She told me about a new doctorial program called Doctor of Philosophy in Organizational Leadership, Sport, Fitness, and Wellness Management. OMG…this is made for me; this is what I do; this is OH-Wellness! Sign me up!
So there you have it. I started school on August 27th. I haven’t stopped studying since, and I don’t anticipate that I will stop studying until 2017. On that note, let’s get together in four years, as we celebrate Optimal Health. For now, I have to get back to writing a paper on Talent Management.
I have been an IDEA member since 2005 and have been attending the yearly conventions there after. What amazes me the most, is that year after year, I count down the days to the convention, and get so bummed when the final day has come and gone.
This year, we had over 8,000 attendees from all over the world and over 360 educational sessions. The greatest challenge for an attendee is what classes to choose because there are so many excellent presenters.
My strategic planning is as follows:
- Take classes that I can apply immediately at work.
- Take classes from my favorite presenters.
- Take a class on a subject of which I am not convinced, however, will attend without judgment.
That said, this is what my schedule looked like with my rating system from above:
Presenter: Eve Fleck, MS (#1 and #2)
Eve is the owner of Gym Without Walls in Encino. She is an excellent Master Trainer and runs a very successful boot camp. Her classes are always solid, tough, and what I love most about Eve is that what you see, is what you get. A true professional!
10 New BIG Things in Small Group Training
Presenter: Brett Klika, C.S.C.S. (#1 and #2)
Brett Klika was voted as IDEA's personal trainer of the year. If you ever have the great pleasure of meeting Brett, you will immediately understand why he was awarded this honor. I have been attending Brett’s sessions for years and what I love most about Brett is that he truly understands the importance of keeping it simple and FUN. For over ten years, he has been working with Todd Durkin, at Fitness Quest 10 in San Diego, and their success with teen athletes and adults is highly regarded. I always walk out of Brett’s class laughing like a kid.
The keynote speaker was Bo Easten, former NFL pro. After he retired, he pursued play writing and acting. His running show is called “Runt of the Litter”. Holly molly, this man is powerful. His message was “Why your personal story is the most valuable asset you have”. An invaluable presentation!
Also awarded was Peter Twist, MSc, with the Inspirational Award. Peter has been in the fitness industry for over two decades and is recognized as one the greatest Sports Conditioning Coaches. He recently fought Stage IV cancer in the head and neck, which had spread throughout his lymph system. “Peters story of conviction, passion, drive, and survival teaches us the importance of living life with purpose and being your best when your best is needed.”
Training The Female Client
Presenter: Sherri McMillan, MSc (#1 and #2)
Sherri is top notch in the health and fitness industry. She owns a very successful gym in Vancouver, Washington called Northwest Personal Training. This woman knows fitness. She is an amazing wealth of knowledge, not only on the fitness side of things, but also on the business and marketing side of fitness. Whenever I leave her class, I am able to apply a number of things to my training.
Vibram: Meet the Feet
Presenter: Stacey Lei Krauss (#3)
I have heard so much about barefoot running and barefoot shoes that I wanted to learn more. I learned a great deal about foot anatomy, however I am still not ready to run out and buy Vibram shoes. I still need to do more research to be convinced that barefoot running is healthy for the Western lifestyle.
HIIT Me With Your Best Shot!
Presenter: Chalene Johnson (#1 and #3)
Chalene is the creator of Turbo Kick, PiYo, Turbo Jam, Hustle, ChaLean Extreme, and Turbo Fire. Her class was in the showcase room with over 300 participants that were all given glow sticks upon arrival…AT 7AM. The energy was ROCKIN’. Chalene introduced some new “sports” kickboxing combinations that were a HIIT. Everyone walked out sweating from head to toe while having a blast. Her positive energy is out of this world.
Four Top Guns Meet Four Top Chicks – A Match Made in Fitness Heaven!
I have one word for you…ENERGY! We must have had over 400 hundred trainers in the showcase room. We had 4 stations of intense workouts. We used the tubes, fire ropes, Bosu, ladders, cones, and more. The greatest moment was when I had to anchor the rope for a very tall, ripped man ½ my age. When he went at it with the double ropes I was almost airborne. It was a Kodak comment.
The Power of Small – Why Small is the New BIG!
Presenter: Brent Gallagher (#3)
Brent owns a personal training gym called West U Fitness in Houston, Texas. His message was very refreshing. In this world of Branding, Facebooking, Tweeting, etc., he brought it back to what our profession is all about, and that is being humanistic. One quote that stuck with me is, “People don’t buy WHAT you do, they buy WHY you do it.” This class validated why I run JESIKAfit the way I do. My competitors are boot camps and fad fitness, however I have always stayed true to my personalized approach. Even my largest class does not exceed 15 people. I truly believe that quality is more important than quantity. But isn't that the foundation of fitness and nutrition? It isn't about how many "super sets" you can do...was your form safe while doing the movement? It doesn't matter if you only eat 1,200kcal a day...what is the QUALITY of the source of your calories?
The Physiology of Fat Loss
Presenter: Len Kravitz, PhD (#1 and #2)
Len is my all time favorite presenter when it comes to Exercise Science. He is a professor at the University of New Mexico and I guarantee you, even if you don’t like science, you will love his lecture. His lecture provided researched information on Tabata, HIIT, Split Training, High-Volume Continuous Circuit Resistance Training, SIT, Indoor Fartlek Play Training, Metabolic High Volume Conditioning, Near-Maximal Interval Training, and 3-in-1 Workout. Just in case you are wondering…Yes, I plan to bring all of these different formulas home to torture you.
The Ultimate Stretch Transformation
Presenter: Jay Blahnik (#3)
What a great way to end the evening. Jay has been presenting at IDEA for 22 years. This was his last year at IDEA due to a new job opportunity. This class was incredibly relaxing…. mind, body, and spirit. I left his class feeling like I am floating without any pain or troubles. A blessing!
Intensity Overload – Battle of the HIITS
Presenter: Mindy Mylrea (#1 and #2)
When I enter Mindy’s class, I know in about 30 minutes I will be in tears. Mindy is one of the funniest, most energetic, and toughest instructors I have ever experienced. In this class she used three items, bender balls, gliders, and ropeless jump ropes. (This year, for those of you who’ve wanted your own pair of ropes, I bought 25 pair, so you are welcome to purchase them). This was another “walk away with a wealth of information” class. What I love most about Mindy is that she is adamant that we take home as much information as possible. Her generosity to share exceeds her height and weight.
Today’s Youth – Tomorrow’s Athletes
This was an excellent class for the future of OH-Athletes and TEENfitness. Ingrid consults with companies on health and fitness and Bill Parisi, who owns the Parisi Speed School. Their presentation was fantastic. My teaching method for teens was validated and more importantly, it feels great to know that I am providing a life changing experience for our Ararat teens. I am always striving to learn more so I can empower Ararat teens to achieve their goals. I definitely will be utilizing everything I learned from this workshop.
The 12-Month Marketing Plan for Small Businesses
Presenter: Sherri McMillan, MSc (#1 and #2)
Once again, Sherri is a huge resource for business owners. She has created the “Business of Personal Training System”. She is a wealth of information and is always enthusiastic to share her success and knowledge. In this class I learned many new things about marketing and business development in the fitness industry.
Unleash Your Inner Athlete
Presenter: Brent Bishop (#1 and #3)
Brent Bishop is the owner of Think Fitness Studios, a Toranto, Canada based gym. WOW, what a great class. The class had four different stations and we had to partner up at each station and guide our partner in diffrerent exercises. My partner was AWESOME. I learned some simple, yet extremely effective exercises and cannot wait to teach them. As many of you have seen on FB, this is the class that I had my little “eye-opening” accident. We had created two lines across from each other. The objective was to sprint across the room, high-5 the person receiving us, which means they can now take off for their sprint. Well, I took off for my sprint (on carpet I might add), high-5ed the receiver and kept on going. Next thing I knew, everyone jumps out of my way (thank goodness were are all fit trainers that could move quickly), and I had the choice of running into the wall or sliding into the empty boxes. I chose the latter and, in the process, managed to cut my eyelid on a box. I was shocked that I could sprint that fast, and was so excited to get myself up to do it again. I had no idea that I had cut my eye until I felt a stinging in the next class. No wonder everyone was looking at me strangely!
Last but not least, Extraordinary Living for Ordinary People
Presenter: Jay Blahnik (#3)
What a feel good class. Jay shared his experience in the health and fitness industry and what he has learned through his travels around the world and the different people he has met. His philosophy consists of what he calls “The Simple 6”.
- Get Real
- Get Busy
- Get Over It
- Be Yourself
- Be Brave
- Be Generous
A great ending to a great conference. I am already looking forward to IDEA World Convention 2014.
Thank you IDEA!
WOW…what a great summer indeed. This year, to serve community needs, we changed our summer programming by adding FAMILYfitness and OH-Athlete Summer Camp.
We learned from past summers that many of our morning clients did not attend fitness classes because their children were at home from school. This gave us the idea to open summer session morning classes to FAMILYfitness. It was extremely well received.
- Registration was open on a weekly basis so parents and children could plan around their travel and other summer camp schedules.
- Parents “Lead by Example”.
- Every child had the opportunity to become a “Fitness Leader”.
- The youngest attendee was 2 years of age and the oldest was in their 60’s.
- Children learned how to take a heart check.
- Children learned anatomy terms.
- Children learned about healthy nutrition.
- Children learned about strength, agility, flexibility, coordination, and speed.
- Last but not least...the Moms had to work A LOT harder because their children were motivating them to keep up and NOT CHEAT (and trust me, children tell on their parents when they cheat. LOVE IT!)
We also added our first OH-Athlete Teen Summer Camp. I collaborated with a well-loved and respected young Ararat athlete, Narbeh Ebrahimian, and off we went.
We held 2-two week session camps, both of which were sold-out. We worked in tandem, as I addressed nutrition and overall conditioning and Narbeh focused on basketball skill training. My previous blog titled “Teen Spirit” reports the statistics we gathered.
- The teens learned about nutrition, anatomy, overall performance training, and skeletal care from Dr. Armen Manoucherian.
- EVERY teen improved.
- The teens were full of questions about nutrition and injury prevention.
- The teens requested future “like” programs.
- Some teens wanted me to call their parents so they wouldn’t have to go on vacation to be able to continue and attend the second camp…priceless!
- Almost every teen lacked the FOUNDATION of sport performance. The reason I say “almost” is because some of the teens had been foundation training and their assessments reflected their ongoing commitment.
- I was VERY pleasantly surprised that teens that attend public schools had more knowledge about physiology, anatomy, and nutrition. The knowledge was noticeably different.
- We did not have to use any disciplinary actions. We had 15 – 20 teens in each group and they were incredibly well behaved and appreciated the structure.
- More than half of the parents reached out and asked if we could address nutrition.
- Teens are AMAZING…I know, I know, especially when they are not yours : )
I can truly say this summer was one of my best professional experiences ever. I appreciate the amazing Moms that “Lead by Example” day in and day out.
I appreciate all the great parents that are raising incredible children, teens, and young adults. I am blessed to have experienced all of the above in the past 7-weeks.
Next on the list for me is IDEA’s Health and Fitness Convention. I hope to come back with the most current health and fitness information that I can apply to the “Back-To-School” session, which begins August 26th – October 5th.
Our first TEEN Summer Camp was a great success. I joined efforts with Narbeh Ebrahimian, who recently completed his 2nd and final basketball season at San Diego State University. For OH-Wellness, it was a natural fit to welcome Narbeh to our summer camp, as he grew up within the Homemenetmen “Ararat” organization. I have known Narbeh for several years now and have spent extensive time speaking with him regarding his experience as an “Ararat” athlete and what he felt could have improved his athleticism and skills in his developmental years. Together we developed our first TEEN Summer Camp. As I focused on the foundation of health and fitness, Narbeh’s focus was to apply the foundation to achieve Optimal Performance on the court.
We had 38 participants that were divided into two categories, 11 – 14 years of age and 15 – 17 years of age. Of those, we had 3 girls in the younger group and 2 girls in the older group.
We spent our first day doing assessments to achieve a baseline.
The foundation assessments consisted of:
- Push-Ups to exhaustion. To analyze upper body strength.
- Timed Crunches (1-minute). To analyze core strength.
- Timed Jump Rope (1-minute). To analyze speed and endurance.
- Right and Left Shoulder Flexion (Can their fingertips meet behind their back). To analyze shoulder mobility.
- Hamstring Flexibility (Can they touch their toes). To analyze lower back mobility.
Basketball performance assessments:
- Speed Dribble Obstacle Coarse (How fast can they ball handle through the coarse?)
- Defensive Obstacle Coarse (How fast can they move through the coarse?)
This left us Day 2 – 7 for training.
Narbeh and I trained in tandem. One group trained with me for an hour and then switched to Narbeh the next hour. We switched the age groups daily.
I covered the basics the first couple of days, i.e. posture, body alignment, form, confidence in posture and what it represents on the court, basic large muscle group strength training, how to exercise APPROPRIATE to their AGE, and healthy nutrition to feed an athlete’s body for Optimal Performance. Narbeh also covered the basics for basketball training, i.e. ball handling, height and distance jumping, coordination and accountability with partners, explosiveness, and shooting skills. At the end of the week, it was a well deserved stretch class with me and scrimmage time with Narbeh.
This is when the serious training began. Both Narbeh and I bumped the training up 10++ notches. One of the days I trained the teens in the High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) format and another day of Tabata training. Narbeh focused on Xtreme Resistance Drills, Parachute Shooting, Triangle Shooting, Star Drills, Ladder Drills, and Hurdles. Week 2/Day 3 was stretch and scrimmage day.
To add, Narbeh was GREAT in always instilling a level of competition in his training where the teens had an opportunity to win a prize independently, or as a team.
DAY 8, THE LAST DAY:
We did our exit assessments on Day 8. We thought the teens would not want to bother with this again however we were pleasantly surprised. They could not wait to measure their improvements. Over 95% of the teens improved in 5 out of the 7 categories. We had posted in the room, a chart of their previous results and after each assessment; the teens would run to the chart to see if they had improved. OK, I have to admit, so did I. I’m a kid that way : )
Narbeh and I both had structured plans to finish our last session however the energy and excitement was overwhelming. It was as if it was the last day of school. At that point, one of my mentor’s and favorite presenter for IDEA Fitness (and recipient for Trainer of the Year) for teen training came to mind. His name is Brett Klika, the director of athletic performance at Fitness Quest 10 in San Diego. He specifically specializes in young athletes. He believes that kids should be allowed to be kids and that the programming should focus on the foundation, not sport specific, and to have fun. Our last session ended with a HUGE game of Dodge Ball! Great FUN!
Our Program’s Successful RESULTS:
- Greatest amount of improvement was by a 12-year-old boy who improved his push-ups from 26 to 45 (19 more).
- Lowest: 11-year-old girl who did 11 push-ups IMPROVED by doing 10 more
- Highest: 15-year-old teen boy who did 60 push-ups IMPROVED by doing 13 more
- Greatest amount of improvement was a tie between a 12-year-old boy and a 16- year-old teen boy who improved by doing an additional 26 crunches.
* 12-year-old: 44 to 70
* 16-year-old: 61 to 87
- Lowest: 11-year-old-girl who did 20 crunches IMPROVED by doing 21 more.
- Highest: 15-year-old teen boy who did 74 crunches IMPROVED by doing 8 more.
- Greatest amount of improvement was by an 11-year-old girl who improved her jump roping from 50 to 100 (50 more).
- Lowest: 11-year-old-boy who did 24 jump ropes IMPROVED by doing 11 more
- Highest: 16-year-old teen boy who jumped 209 times. This teen has been foundation training with me for over a year.
Right and Left Shoulder Flexion:
- The oldest of the group, a 17 year old teen boy had the greatest improvement. His right shoulder had a 4 ½ “ gap and the left had a 7 ½ “ inch gap. At his exit assessment both sides met equally! WOW!
- A 13-year-old teen boy had the greatest improvement, from a 7-inch gap to touching his toes. He kept asking me, “how is this possible?” : )
BASKETBALL PEROFMRANCE TRAINING:
- This category is the toughest one to improve, as the development takes more time.
- The oldest of the group, the 17-year-old teen male, had the highest vertical jump, 26 ¾ “.
- The highest hit, was a 15-year-old teen boy, at 120”.
- Most improved was by a 15-year-old teen boy, with a 2” improvement.
Speed Dribble Coarse:
- Greatest amount of improvement was by a 12-year-old boy who improved his speed from 35.5 seconds to 28 seconds (7.5 seconds faster).
- Slowest: 11-year-old-girl who measured 38.91 seconds IMPROVED to 31.27 seconds.
- Fastest: 16-year-old teen boy who measured 25 seconds IMPROVED to 22 seconds.
- Greatest amount of improvement was by a 13-year-old teen boy who increased his speed from 34.4 seconds to 21.71 seconds (12.7 seconds faster).
- Slowest: The same boy above was the slowest.
- Fastest: 15-year-old teen boy who measured 15.14 seconds IMPROVED to 12.4 seconds.
I am incredibly impressed with the results especially in such a short amount of time. Let’s revisit the lesson plan:
Day 1 – Assessments
Day 2 – Foundation Training
Day 3 – Foundation Training
Day 4 – Stretch & Scrimmage
Day 5 – Competitive Training
Day 6 – Competitive Training
Day 7 – Stretch & Scrimmage
Day 8 – Exit Assessments
On a personal note, these results confirm my belief that children and teens lack foundation training. You cannot build a solid house (team) on a weak foundation!
Our next 2-Week Session will begin July 8 – 18th. We are anticipating another successful session!
I recently read a brief article composed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention regarding the health status of our nation.
Question: Are we getting healthier as a nation?
According to the outline, 6 out of 10 people are overweight and the overall health of our nation is NOT improving. We continue to smoke, drink alcohol heavily, and not exercise. These actions result in a rise of heart disease, diabetes, and chronic illnesses. All of the mentioned are lifestyle CHOICES!
According to this article:
- “About six of ten adults drink, including an increase in those who reported episodic heavy drinking of five or more drinks on one day during the previous year.
- Twenty percent of adults smoke, and less than one-half of smokers attempted to quit in the past year.
- Only one in five adults met federal guidelines for both aerobic activity and muscle-strengthening exercises. On e in three was completely inactive when it came to any leisure-time aerobic activity.” (Americans Still Making Unhealthy Choices: CDC, May 22, 2013)
Anything positive? YES!
- Americans that are happy or happily married, are getting enough sleep. To add, it was also reported 38% of Americans that are separated, divorced, or widowed have trouble getting enough sleep vs. 27% of married adults.
- Another positive finding is that young adults show a decline in smoking, from 23.1% to 21%.
The article concludes that we need to invest more in community-based prevention. We need to promote healthy CHOICES i.e. healthy eating, exercise, and mind body awareness.
On a personal note, articles like this are the driving force behind my program, Optimal Health Community Wellness Center (OH-Wellness) and my partnership with Homenetmen Glendale “Ararat” Chapter. HEALTH EDUCATION is imperative for the future of our nation.
I think an appropriate ending to this blog is the following quote:
“If we can lower obesity trends by a small amount, say 5 percent in each state, we could save millions of Americans from health problems and save billions of dollars in health spending.” (Hamburg, R., May 21, 2013)
Charlotte Schoenborn, M.P.H., U.S. National Center for Health Statistics; Rich Hamburg, Deputy Director, Trust for American's Health; May 21, 2013, U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention report, Health Behaviors of Adults: United States, 2008-2012